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Definition of ADSL connection

Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. It does this by utilizing frequencies that are not used by a voice telephone call. A splitter, or DSL filter, allows a single telephone connection to be used for both ADSL service and voice calls at the same time. ADSL can generally only be distributed over short distances from the telephone exchange (the last mile), typically less than 4 kilometres (2 mi), but has been known to exceed 8 kilometres (5 mi) if the originally laid wire gauge allows for further distribution.

At the telephone exchange the line generally terminates at a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) where another frequency splitter separates the voice band signal for the conventional phone network. Data carried by the ADSL are typically routed over the telephone company's data network and eventually reach a conventional Internet Protocol network.

Overview

ADSL differs from the less common symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) in that bandwidth (and bit rate) is greater toward the customer premises (known as downstream) than the reverse (known as upstream). This is why it is called asymmetric. Providers usually market ADSL as a service for consumers to provide Internet access in a relatively passive mode: able to use the higher speed direction for the download from the Internet but not needing to run servers that would require high speed in the other direction.

There are both technical and marketing reasons why ADSL is in many places the most common type offered to home users. On the technical side, there is likely to be more crosstalk from other circuits at the DSLAM end (where the wires from many local loops are close to each other) than at the customer premises. Thus the upload signal is weakest at the noisiest part of the local loop, while the download signal is strongest at the noisiest part of the local loop. It therefore makes technical sense to have the DSLAM transmit at a higher bit rate than does the modem on the customer end. Since the typical home user in fact does prefer a higher download speed, the telephone companies chose to make a virtue out of necessity, hence ADSL. On the marketing side, limiting upload speeds limits the attractiveness of this service to business customers, often causing them to purchase higher cost leased line services instead. In this fashion, it segments the digital communications market between business and home users.

Transport Protocols

ADSL defines three "Transmission protocol-specific transmission convergence (TPS-TC)" layers:

In home installation, the prevalent transport protocol is ATM. On top of ATM, there are multiple possibilities of additional layers of protocols (two of them are abbreviated in a simplified manner as "PPPoA" or "PPPoE"), with the all-important TCP/IP at layer 4 of the OSI model providing the connection to the Internet.

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Exede Internet availabily was based on: Exede internet is available in almost all areas of United States please call us, your local authorized dealer in High Speed Satellite Internet to talk with an internet specialist today. Exede Satellite Internet Requires a clear view of the southern sky. © 2014 WildBlue Communications, Inc. Service not available in all areas of High Speed Satellite Internet United States. Please call to check for service availability. Minimum 24 month commitment term. One-time setup fee of $149.99 (currently on special for $49.99) and $9.99/month equipment lease apply (or pre-pay a 24-month lease and save almost $40). Actual speeds will vary. Non-standard installations may result in additional charge. Equipment must be returned upon cancellation of service, otherwise unreturned equipment fees apply. Taxes and monthly service fees apply. Prices subject to change. All offers valid for a limited time and may be changed or withdrawn at any time. Requires a clear view of the southern sky. Use of the Exede service is subject to data transmission limits measured on a monthly basis as described in the Data Allowance Policy. For complete details and the Data Allowance Policy, visit www.exede.com. Exede Satellite Internet is a service mark of ViaSat, Inc. This website is owned and operated by an independent distributor of Exede Satellite Internet from ViaSat Communications, Inc. Some content on this website may be copyrighted by ViaSat Communications, Inc.